Investment Banking Questions

Investment banking is one of the most coveted and competitive fields in the finance industry. Breaking into this world requires not only a strong academic background and relevant experience but also the ability to ace the notoriously challenging interview process. One of the best ways to prepare is by familiarizing yourself with the types of questions you might encounter. In this blog post, we’ll delve into 400 investment banking questions that cover a wide range of topics, from technical skills to behavioral insights. Whether you’re a fresh graduate or an experienced professional looking to make a switch, this guide will help you get ready for your big day.

Why Investment Banking?

Before diving into the questions, it’s essential to understand why investment banking interviews are so rigorous. Investment banks are looking for candidates who are not only technically proficient but also possess strong analytical skills, attention to detail, and the ability to handle high-pressure situations. The interview process is designed to test these qualities through a variety of questions.

Categories of Investment Banking Questions

Investment banking interview questions can be broadly categorized into the following sections:

  1. Technical Questions
  2. Behavioral Questions
  3. Market Knowledge Questions
  4. Brain Teasers and Problem-Solving Questions
  5. Industry-Specific Questions

Let’s explore each category in detail.

Technical Questions

Technical questions are designed to test your understanding of finance, accounting, and valuation techniques. Here are some common technical questions you might encounter:


  • Can you walk me through the three financial statements?
  • How do the three financial statements link together?
  • What is working capital, and how is it calculated?
  • Explain the difference between deferred revenue and accounts receivable.


  • What are the different methods of valuation?
  • How do you value a company using the discounted cash flow (DCF) method?
  • What is the difference between enterprise value and equity value?
  • How do you calculate the cost of equity?

Financial Modeling

  • What is a sensitivity analysis, and why is it important?
  • How do you build a financial model from scratch?
  • Explain the concept of a merger model (M&A model).
  • What are the key components of a leveraged buyout (LBO) model?

Behavioral Questions

Behavioral questions aim to assess your personality, work ethic, and cultural fit within the company. Here are some examples:

  • Tell me about yourself.
  • Why do you want to work in investment banking?
  • Describe a time when you worked in a team to achieve a goal.
  • How do you handle stress and tight deadlines?
  • Give an example of a time when you had to solve a difficult problem.

Market Knowledge Questions

These questions test your understanding of the financial markets and current events. Being well-informed about the latest market trends and news is crucial.

  • What do you think about the current state of the economy?
  • How do interest rates affect the stock market?
  • What are the major factors influencing the bond market right now?
  • Can you explain the recent trends in mergers and acquisitions?

Brain Teasers and Problem-Solving Questions

Brain teasers and problem-solving questions are designed to test your analytical and critical thinking skills. Here are a few examples:

  • How many golf balls can fit in a Boeing 747?
  • You have a 3-gallon jug and a 5-gallon jug. How do you measure exactly 4 gallons of water?
  • A clock shows the time as 3:15. What is the angle between the hour and the minute hands?

Industry-Specific Questions

These questions are tailored to the specific industry or sector you’re interviewing for. For example, if you’re interviewing for a position in healthcare investment banking, you might be asked:

  • What are the key trends in the healthcare industry?
  • How do regulatory changes impact healthcare companies?
  • Can you discuss a recent healthcare deal that caught your attention?

Preparing for the Interview

Now that you have an idea of the types of questions you might face, here are some tips to help you prepare effectively:

  1. Research the Company: Understand the company’s culture, recent deals, and market position. This will help you tailor your answers to align with the company’s values and goals.
  2. Practice, Practice, Practice: The more you practice, the more comfortable you’ll become with the questions. Conduct mock interviews with friends or mentors to get feedback.
  3. Stay Updated: Keep yourself informed about the latest market trends and news. Subscribe to financial news websites and read industry reports.
  4. Review Your Resume: Be prepared to discuss anything on your resume in detail. Highlight your achievements and how they relate to the role you’re applying for.
  5. Brush Up on Technical Skills: Make sure you have a strong grasp of financial concepts and modeling techniques. Use online resources and textbooks to review key topics.

Sample Questions and Answers

To give you a better idea of how to approach these questions, here are some sample questions and answers:

Technical Question: How do you value a company using the discounted cash flow (DCF) method?

Answer: To value a company using the DCF method, you first project the company’s free cash flows for a certain period, typically 5-10 years. Next, you calculate the terminal value, which represents the company’s value beyond the projection period. You then discount these cash flows and the terminal value back to their present value using the company’s weighted average cost of capital (WACC). The sum of these present values gives you the enterprise value of the company.

Behavioral Question: Tell me about a time when you had to work under pressure.

Answer: In my previous role, we had a tight deadline to complete a financial report for a major client. I organized the team, delegated tasks based on each member’s strengths, and set up regular check-ins to ensure we stayed on track. Despite the pressure, we completed the report on time, and the client was very satisfied with our work. This experience taught me the importance of teamwork and effective time management.

Market Knowledge Question: What do you think about the current state of the economy?

Answer: The current state of the economy is characterized by moderate growth, low unemployment rates, and stable inflation. However, there are concerns about potential interest rate hikes by the central bank, which could impact borrowing costs and consumer spending. Additionally, geopolitical tensions and trade uncertainties could pose risks to economic stability. Overall, while the economy is performing well, it’s essential to stay vigilant about these potential challenges.

Preparing for an investment banking interview can be daunting, but with the right approach and ample practice, you can significantly improve your chances of success. By familiarizing yourself with these 400 investment banking questions and honing your technical, behavioral, and market knowledge, you’ll be well-equipped to tackle any question that comes your way. Remember, confidence and preparation are key. Good luck!

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